Joint project FOR2401

  Test bench: single-cylinder research engine with a displacement of 0.5L and a compression ratio of 12 Copyright: © TME

Research group 2401: Optimization-Based Multiscale Control of Low-Temperature Combustion Engines


Key Info

Basic Information

01.08.2021 to 31.07.2024
Drive Systems



Xu Chen


+49 241 80 27486




The growing demand for mobility, the limited supply of fossil resources, and the increasing environmental interest of the population create a socially highly debated field of tension in which the research group operates. Low-temperature combustion, colled LTC represents a promising concept for creating more sustainability in this field of tension.

So far, the widespread technical use of LTC processes has been hindered primarily by unstable process behavior, especially during transient operation, and the limited operating range of LTC. The overarching goal is still to stabilize the combustion processes to ensure high efficiency and low emissions and expand the operating range into high and low partial loads by applying innovative multiscale control approaches. In order to be able to use the combustion process in vehicle engines, all transient processes must be reliably controlled.


Project Goals and Methods

project logo FOR2401 Copyright: © DFG

In the first funding period, the research group was able to demonstrate the high potential of the proposed optimization-based multiscale control concept regarding increasing efficiency and reducing raw emissions with the developed fundamental methods.

  project logo FOR2401 Copyright: © DFG

Therefore, FOR2401 continues its plan for further research in the second funding period. In order to make a significant contribution to the technical utilization of LTC, the following main objectives are relevant:

  • Establishment of a basic understanding of LTC processes
  • Multiscale control methodology, including customized algorithms
  • Integration of air path control into multiscale control
  • System identification through new sensor concepts
  • Customized measurement algorithms for experimental model matching
  • The potential of coupling LTC with renewable fuels.

Innovations and Perspectives

The challenges mentioned above are countered by a largely untapped optimization potential for combustion engines through low-temperature combustion, called LTC. With the help of LTC, both efficiencies can be increased and pollutant emissions reduced. The urban driving profile, in particular, has high proportions in partial load, in which LTC works particularly effectively so that pollutant concentrations in urban areas can be reduced. In the long term, regenerative fuels can be tailored to these combustion processes and thus contribute significantly to CO2 neutrality. Fuels specifically tailored to an application have the advantage that they can be optimally complemented with the process and fuel-specific control approaches. However, fuels must be used as efficiently as possible to significantly contribute to reducing greenhouse gases and pollutants. The FOR2401 research group is pursuing a largely fuel-independent approach to ensure a wide range of applications for the investigated techniques to make LTC technically usable. This would make LTC technology a viable mobility concept, independent of the primary energy source, even in the long term.

Project partner